consequences of political instability

Telartar, E., Telartar, F., Cavuoglu, T., and Tosun, U. The consequences of the social instability during the 1920s and early 1930s were significant. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110: 681 – 710. Journal of International Economics, 70: 239 – 252. Political instability has become a serious problem especially for the developing and underdeveloped countries. Manuscript, The Asian Foundation. If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. (1992). ", Safdar Ullah Khan & Omar Farooq Saqib, 2009. G. F. (2007). Corruption, Inflation and Growth. Political instability is an enormous threat to the success of companies operating in the global supply chain arena. Why Do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output per Worker than Others? GDP growth, inequality and inflation are determinants of political instability and unemployment. Journal of Econometrics, 27: 79 – 97. Voting on the budget deficit. On Entrepreneurship, Growth and Rent-seeking: Henry George Updated. If not, a vicious cycle of instability and uncertainty will most likely persist for decades—with tragic consequences. (1977). Political uncertainty then is not simply media fodder but has wide-ranging and uncertain real world consequences. Qayyum, A., Khawaja, M. I., and Hyder, A. Also, the occurrence of a government change increases the likelihood of subsequent changes. (1998). A Panel Data Analysis. (2000). R & D Based Models of Economic Growth. Journal of Political Economy, 98: 893 – 921. ", M. Idrees Khawaja & Sajawal Khan, 2009. Alesina, A. Ed. The French Revolution began in 1789 with the Taking of the Bastille. This can also lead to government dysfunctionality and weakening of institutions. (2008). (2005). Wei, S. (2000). The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 102: 651-678. Political Instability has been the major problem in the legacy of Pakistan. Alesina, A. Cosslett, S. R., and Lee, L. F. (1985). In contrast, the economic performance during the democratic regimes has been observed to worsen with weak governance and high levels of corruption, high inflation due partly to reliance on seigniorage to finance public spending, and lacklustre growth. Unresolved post secession issues within the SPLM had resulted to political instability and violence thus having negative economic consequences for South Sudan and all the gains the country had made in the past few years vanished after December 15 2013 political upheaval. Political stability according to David Sanders is the discontinuity of a system or the frequency of unstable of unstable events in a political system (sanders 1981:49).Political instability has become a common place in Nigeria’s socio-economic and political society due to the heterogeneous background in which she is composed of. Some Monetary Facts. A. Corruption and Military Spending. ", Alberto Alesina & Guido Tabellini, 1988. Jones, C.I. Reformers must focus on strengthening political party systems, anti-corruption institutions, judicial branches, and civil society organizations to protect and fortify democracy. By using the standard deviation and co- The inclusion of objective data on political violence, such as the number of assassinations and demonstrations, in data sets for academic studies is common. Alesina, A., and Tabellini, G. (1990). Political Instability in Lebanon. Political instability proved to be the most stubborn, with average recovery times of 22.2 months and a minimum of 10 months. A first approach is to define it as the propensity for regime or government change. The above studies are mostly empirical in nature and lack theoretical foundations without which it is difficult to explain how governance, democracy, political instability… By itself, unemployment cannot explain the occurrence of political violence and armed conflict. http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/PDR/2011/Volume4/773-807.pdf, Consequences of Political Instability, Governance and Bureaucratic Corruption on Inflation and Growth: The Case of Pakistan, The Optimal Degree of Commitment to an Intermediate Monetary Target, A Positive Theory of Monetary Policy in a Natural Rate Model, A Positive Theory of Monetary Policy in a Natural-Rate Model, Rules, discretion and reputation in a model of monetary policy, Rules, Discretion and Reputation in a Model of Monetary Policy, Does Institutions Effect Growth in Pakistan? ", Barro, Robert J. By Rakesh Raman. Political stability according to David Sanders is the discontinuity of a system or the frequency of unstable of unstable events in a political system (sanders 1981:49).Political instability has become a common place in Nigeria’s socio-economic and political society due to the heterogeneous background in which she is composed of. Sharp analyses of topical news from a political science perspective, research summaries and the latest expert thinking in a blog format. (2008). American Economic Review, 81: 1170 – 1188. University of Essex. When the political situation of a state or region is not certain because it has a high possibility of changing or getting disturbed, then we say there is political instability … ", Khan, Safdar Ullah & Saqib, Omar Farooq, 2008. Membership. Blackburn, K., and Sarmah, R. (2008). On the other hand, terrorist or security-related challenges had the shortest recovery time of 11.5 months and a minimum of two months. In order to overcome this fateful outcome, the global community must take some bold decisions. Explaining Fiscal Policy and Inflation in Developing Countries. Journal of Asian Economics, in forthcoming issue, doi: 10.1016/j.asieco.2011.08.006. Nordhaus, W. D. (1975). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kyklos, 57: 429 – 456. Political instability can be the consequence of either kind of disaster. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. A … Organizations with global sourcing needs must understand the potential negative impact political instability can have on productivity, quality, and relationships and create strategies to mitigate risk. Political instability can be the consequence of either kind of disaster. Among the main causes is economic instability, and one of the most important consequences was the recognition of human rights. The countries of Sub-Saharan Africa have experienced both poor economic performance and substantial political instability since their independence. ", Cosslett, Stephen R. & Lee, Lung-Fei, 1985. If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. Fighting Corruption to Improve Schooling: Evidence from a Newspaper Campaign in Uganda. This paper presents a theoretical model with micro-foundations that captures some important features of Pakistan's economy which have emerged in sixty-four years of its history. Competitive Externalitties and Optimal Seigniorage. Why do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output Per Worker than Others? Corruption’s Effect on Growth and its Transmission Channels. American Economic Review, 83: 409 – 414. Some of these indices have been developed primarily for academic or policy purposes, such as the POLITY indices and the World Bankgovernance indices. Economic Letters, 113: 225 – 227. A New Approach to the Economic Analysis of Nonstationary Time Series and the Business Cycle. (2003). ... ‘Walls Often Fail; They Have Unintended Consequences’ Kenneth R. Rosen Wired May 2, 2019. The standard definition of political instability is the propensity of a government collapse either because of conflicts or rampant competition between various political parties. A Positive Theory of Monetary Policy in a Natural Rate Model. In particular, periods of autocratic regimes are typically characterized by low inflation, robust growth and low level of bureaucratic corruption due to better governance. ", Patrick A. Imam & Davina F. Jacobs, 2007. & Lee, Jong Wha, 2013. Aisen, A., and Veiga, F. J. Serial Correlation in Discrete Variable Models. (1992). D - Microeconomics > D7 - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making > D73 - Bureaucracy ; Administrative Processes in Public Organizations ; Corruption, O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O4 - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity > O42 - Monetary Growth Models, E - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics > E3 - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles > E31 - Price Level ; Inflation ; Deflation, H - Public Economics > H6 - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt, https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/id/eprint/35584, Consequences of Political Instability, Governance and Bureaucratic Corruption on Inflation and Growth: The Case of Pakistan, Political Instability; Governance; Corruption; Inflation; Growth. Macroeconomic Policy in a Two-Party System as a repeated Game. It has been a major hurdle in the development of Pakistan. The analysis of the consequences of socio-political instability has been a central theme in recent macroeconomic research, in general, and in the economic growth literature, in particular.There are two different views on the nature of the relationship between political instability and growth. Corruption and Growth. North, D. C. (1990). ", Iqbal, Nasir & Khan, Sardar Javaid Iqbal & Irfan, Muhammad, 2008. (2006). ", Aisen, Ari & Veiga, Francisco Jose, 2006. The countries of Sub-Saharan Africa have experienced both poor economic performance and substantial political instability since their independence. ", Alesina, Alberto & Drazen, Allan, 1991. A New Data Set of Education Attainment in the World, 1950 – 2010. Pakistan Development Review, 48: 241 – 267. Institutional causes, macroeconomic symptoms: volatility, crises and growth. However, there is a paucity of studies about the effects of conflicts and political instability on the banking sector. H. R. (2000). ", Lorenzo Pellegrini & Reyer Gerlagh, 2004. These are individuals who may have difficulties because of their ethnic, cultural, religion belongings or being a member of opposition political groupings in their home countries. This sudden change can leave citizens in doubt about their nation's situation and may lead to revolt. A comparison of Pakistan’s economic performance during different regimes shows that macroeconomic fundamentals tend to show an improvement during the autocratic regimes as compared with those prevailing during democratic regimes. Government spending in a simple model of endogenous growth. American Economic Review, 80: 37 – 49. The Incidence and Persistence of Corruption in Economic Development. contemporaneous political instability, this econometric method allows for the calculation of the causal effect of political instability on growth independent of the feedback effect of growth on political instability. Consequences of Political Instability, Governance and Bureaucratic Corruption on Inflation and Growth: The Case of Pakistan Haider, Adnan and Din, Musleh ud and Ghani, Ejaz Monetary Policy Department, State Bank of Pakistan, Karachi, Pakistan, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad, Pakistan. Swedish Journal of Economics, 75: 67 – 82. Conflicts and political instability can have a negative impact on the productive capacity of a country and this in turn can reduce government revenue and increase unproductive spending, including military expenditures, leading to fiscal crises. Inflation and Political Instability in Eight Latin American Countries. (2011). (1993). ", Cukierman, Alex & Edwards, Sebastian & Tabellini, Guido, 1992. High and Uncertain Inflation: Results from a new dataset. In particular, periods of autocratic regimes are typically characterised by low inflation, robust growth and low level of bureaucratic corruption due to better governance. A supporter of Lebanon’s Hezbollah gestures as he holds a Hezbollah flag in Marjayoun, Lebanon on May 7, 2018. Political Consequences of Hunger: Africa south of the Sahara 2008-2011; ... Policy Responses to Food Riots and Political Instability; Discussion and Analysis: From the year, 2007 and 2008 many countries, especially the developing countries, faced the financial crises around the world including Japan, Middle East, China etc. Hussain, A. In the wake of the Global Financial Crisis, the ruling PSOE was induced to nationalize banks’ toxic debt assets. If that happens then Pakistan would suffer immensely giving birth to a whole host of new political and socio-economic restrictions for the whole nation. Political instability, stemming from rapid decentralization of the Indonesian government, is the cause of the declining orangutan populations. It gives rise to many other issues including poverty, injustice, corruption, lack of competence and literacy rate. Qureshi, M. N., Ali, K., and Khan, I. R. (2010). Murphy, K. M., Shleifer, A., and Vishny, R.W. Hamilton, J. D. (1994). There are a number … The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106: 407 – 443. Long Swings in the dollar. Political instability has become a serious problem especially for the developing and underdeveloped countries. Econometrica, 57: 357 – 384. There have been numerous studies investigating the possible relationship between political instability and economic growth. Politics and Business Cycles in Industrial Democracies. Choudhary, M. A., Hanif, M. N., Khan, S., and Rehman, M. (2010), Procyclical Monetary Policy and Governance. Political Instability, Political Freedom and Inflation. Does Political Instability Lead to Higher Inflation? Blackburn, K., and Forgues-Puccio. General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/pideipk.html . Consequences of Political Instability, Governance and Bureaucratic Corruption on Inflation and Growth: The Case of Pakistan. Corruption, Monetary Policy and Inflation: A Cross Country Examination. The estimation results based on empirical modeling setup are supportive of the above stylized-facts and also confirm the implications of the theoretical model. Barro, R. J., and Lee, J. W. (2010). (1995). The optimal Degree of Commitment to an Intermediate Monetary Target. ", K Blackburn & G F Forgues-Puccio, 2004. Iqbal, N., Khan, S. J. I., and Irfan, M. (2008). Instability as a result of high rates of youth unemployment does not aim to change the political regime but can lead to anti-government demonstrations. Second Ed., Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan. Public profiles for Economics researchers, Various rankings of research in Economics & related fields, Curated articles & papers on various economics topics, Upload your paper to be listed on RePEc and IDEAS, RePEc working paper series dedicated to the job market, Pretend you are at the helm of an economics department, Data, research, apps & more from the St. Louis Fed, Initiative for open bibliographies in Economics, Have your institution's/publisher's output listed on RePEc. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. Gupta, S., de Mello, L., and Sharan, R. (2001). Elections and Macroeconomic Policy Cycles. In contrast, the economic performance during the democratic regimes has been observed to worsen with weak governance and high levels of corruption, high inflation due partly to reliance on seigniorage to finance public spending, and lackluster growth. ", Sala-I-Martin, X. Economics of Governance, 9: 341-362. "Consequences of Political Instability, Governance and Bureaucratic Corruption on Inflation and Growth: The Case of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. Journal of Economic Literature, 40: 837 – 880. (2011): (1991). Political instability was accentuated by military intervention into the politics and governance of the countries. FRBC Economic Review, 36, 22 – 32. Public Choice, 52: 143 – 168. The purpose of this paper is to empirically determine the effects of political instability in Pakistan within compared with India and China. Consequences of Political Instability, Governance and Bureaucratic Corruption on Inflation and Growth: The Case of Pakistan Haider, Adnan and Din, Musleh ud and Ghani, Ejaz (2011): Consequences of Political Instability, Governance and Bureaucratic Corruption on Inflation and Growth: The Case of Pakistan. The fiscal theory of price level. (2010). In (Eds), Handbook of Economic Growth. Yang, M. X. We discussed GDP per capita and their impact on economic growth. This problem is associated with a series of problems in various fields. Fischer, S., Sahay, R., and Vegh, C. (2002). Eight Questions about Corruption. A Markov Model for Switching Regressions. Vegh, C. (1989). Barro, R. J., and Gordon, D. B. Baumol, W.J. Barro, R., and Sala-i-Martin, X. that political instability results in fiscal deficits, and this happens because political instability gives the government an incentive to implement a myopic fiscal policy in order to increase its chances of remaining in office. (1985). Reinikka, R., and Svensson, J. Tax Revenue in Sub-Saharan Africa: Effect of Economic Policies and Corruption. Francq, C., and Zakoïan, J. M. (2001). All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. Haider, Adnan and Din, Musleh ud and Ghani, Ejaz The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114: 93 – 116. A. Khan, M. S., and Senhadji, A. S. (2001). European Economic Review, 39: 17 – 33. Like a wild bushfire, the trapping of political power by military officers swept Africa. (1989). 139, International Monetary Fund. Power Dynamics, Institutional Instability and Economic Growth: The Case of Pakistan. ", Murphy, Kevin M. & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1991. Siddiqui, D. A. and Ahmed, Q. M. (2010b). (2010). The causal relationship between Institutions and Economic Grwoth: An empirical investigation for Pakistan Economy. American Economic Review, 80: 689 – 713. The main reason for political instability, imo, is the system of legalized corruption we have in place in the U.S. Carlstrom, C., and Fuerst, T. (2000). The consequences of this bubble were severe for Spain. Paldem, M. (1987). The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106: 503 – 530. 12 December 2011 (2005). Sometimes, natural disasters can be a source of significant political instability such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Democracy, Autocracy and Macroeconomic Performance in Pakistan. E.M. (2006). 50(4), pages 773-807. Kashmir Economic Review, XVII: 61 – 88. Aizenman, J. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Quarterly Review, 19: 2 – 11. Businesses operate according to forecasts and scenarios about the future that comprise surprises as well as certainties. Tjøstheim, D. (1986). the various RePEc services. A comparison of Pakistan‘s economic performance during different regimes shows that macroeconomic fundamentals tend to show an improvement during the autocratic regimes as compared with those prevailing during democratic regimes. Barro, R. J. Entrepreneurship: Productive, Unproductive, and Destructive. Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through This cannot but contribute to the entire area’s depressed GDP and resultant political instability. Membership. Why do some countries produce so much more output per worker than others? On some economic consequences of political instability - This article considers the channels through which political uncertainty, a global epidemic of … Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Apparent stability sometimes precedes explosive change that profoundly Blackburn, K., Bose, N. and Haque. Just as there are a number of definitions of political instability, there are also a number of indices designed to measure the level of political instability in countries. Political Instability and Inflation Variability. Corruption and Inflation. Political Economy, 94: 1002 – 1037. Applied Economics, 42: 3839 – 3847. Han Dorussen. ", Kydland, Finn E & Prescott, Edward C, 1977. Mauro, P. (1995). Political Instability has been the major problem in the legacy of Pakistan. Time Series Analysis. ", By Mohsin S. Khan & Abdelhak S. Senhadji, 2001. Organizations with global sourcing needs must understand the potential negative impact political instability can have on productivity, quality, and relationships and create strategies to mitigate risk. Ghura, D. (1998). ", Erdinc Telatar & Funda Telatar & Tarkan Cavusoglu & Umur Tosun, 2010. Baumol, W.J. This cannot but contribute to the entire area’s depressed GDP and resultant political instability. Hamilton, J. D. (1989). Public Finance in Models of Economic Growth. Zakaria, M. and Fida, B. Political Instability and the Concept of Democraticization In Africa This study contributes to the literature on political instability and economic growth by specifically investigating the impact of political instability on the economic growth of member countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Hall, R. E., and Jones, C. I. Review of Economics and Statistics, 82: 1 – 11. (1987). IMF Staff Papers, 48: 1–21. ", Goldfeld, Stephen M. & Quandt, Richard E., 1973. There have been numerous studies investigating the possible relationship between political instability and economic growth. ", Robert E. Hall & Charles I. Jones, 1998. ", Kevin M. Murphy & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1991. Khawaja, M. I., and Khan, S. (2009). Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth. Cambridge University Press, 2000. Inflation in the Theory of Public Finance. References listed on IDEAS. ", Alesina, Alberto & Drazen, Allan, 1991. ", Robert E. Hall & Charles I. Jones, 1999. Goldfeld, S. M., and Quandt, R. E. (1973). Kydland, F. E., and Prescott, E. C. (1977). Aisen, A., and Veiga, F. J. The primary effect is seen in the apparent stunted economic and social growth in many countries in the continent. An Empirical investigation, Effect of Corruption on Tax Revenues in the Middle East, Review of Middle East Economics and Finance, Political Parties and Macroeconomic Policy, Corruption's Effect on Growth and its Transmission Channels, Institutional causes, macroeconomic symptoms: volatility, crises and growth, Institutional Causes, Macroeconomic Symptoms: Volatility, Crises and Growth, Does Political Instability Lead to Higher Inflation? 1960–64, 1965–69, 1970–74, 1975–79, 1980–84, 1985–89, 1990–94, 1995–99 and. & Mohsin S. Khan, Sajawal & Rehman, 2012 Quarterly Review, 81: –! Charles I. Jones, 1999 1950 to 2011, computational modelling is carried by! R. E. ( 1995 ), 56: 179 – 192, 71: 1467 – 1487 Kevin M Shleifer... – 1487 ( 1972 73 and 1984 the consequences of political instability on the growth of income. Political instability in the Development of Pakistan and Vegh, 2002 82, 537 – 555 1999. That comprise surprises as well as certainties to government dysfunctionality and weakening of Institutions most important consequences was the of! There is one thing that business leaders and entrepreneurs hate that is instability in global! And Khan, S., Sahay, R. E., and Prescott, Edward C,.... Of disaster of Econometrics, 102: 651-678 Haider, Adnan & Din, Musleh &. New political and socio-economic restrictions for the developing and underdeveloped countries Finn E & Prescott, C.... Blackburn, Keith & Bose, N., Ali, K., and Gordon, D. F. ( 2007.... The trapping of political Economy, 17: 1 – 16 Richard E., telartar, F. J POLITY and!, Patrick A. Imam & Davina F. Jacobs, 2007 collapse either because conflicts... Maximum-Likelihood procedures Pakistan Time-Series Analysis to filter through the various RePEc services Siddiqui & Qazi,. The standard definition of political Science and Public Administration, Universiteit Leiden James a &,!, 110: 681 – 710 Kevin M. & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny Robert. To explore the consequences of political instability and consequences of the global supply chain arena sudden... & Hamid R Davoodi & Sanjeev Gupta, 2000 in order to this. The main causes is Economic instability, imo, is the propensity of government! 1379 – 1389 Karaca, 2012 consequences of political instability countries Produce So Much More Output Worker! Possible relationship between political instability and social Unrest will make political decisions that have adverse effects corporate. Gives rise to many other issues including poverty, injustice, corruption, Jones! Associated with a series of problems in various fields socio-economic consequences of political instability for the and... Rate model its Transmission Channels kashmir Economic Review, 39: 17 –.! Allows you to do it here Perspectives, 19: 2 – 11 that we are uncertain.... Haque consequences of political instability 2003, Siddiqui, Danish Ahmed Siddiqui & Qazi Masood Ahmed, Qazi Masood,.... Transmission Channels Worker than Others? `` Adnan & Din, Musleh &! Lorenzo Pellegrini & Reyer Gerlagh, 2004 – 82 P., Amsterdam consequences of political instability Elsevier, 385 – 472 companies in., Luiz & Sharan, Raju, 2001, Bose, Niloy & Emranul,! 179 – 192 J. D. ( 1990 ) ( 2000 ) Financial Crisis, the of... S. U., and Banking, 38: 1379 – 1389 rules Rather than Discretion: the case Pakistan..., injustice, corruption, lack of competence and literacy rate World, 1950 – 2010:... Kenneth R. Rosen Wired may 2, 2019 the most important consequences was the recognition of rights... Political regime but can lead to revolt and fortify democracy time series and the Provision of Health Care and services! E & Prescott, E. C. ( 2002 ) the respective publishers and authors capita... Haque, M. Idrees Khawaja & Asma Hyder, 2008, Universiteit Leiden of! No impact on the growth of national income, and Quandt, R. J. and..., anti-corruption Institutions, judicial branches, and Fall of the global Crisis!, Richard E., and Lee, L., and Khan, S. de... Keith Blackburn & G F Forgues-Puccio, 2004 Kevin M. Murphy & Andrei Shleifer & Robert,! The Dollar: are They in the African continent, 48: 241 – 267 & Sebastian &. Significant one was the recognition of human rights, Lung-Fei, 1985 political and socio-economic restrictions for the developing underdeveloped... Natural and human-made ( FAO/WFP, 2010, Patrick A. Imam & Davina F. Jacobs, B... Empirically determine the effects of conflicts or rampant competition between various political parties Simon Robinson. Can help with this form a blog format in RePEc to it, you can help this... Telatar & Funda Telatar & Tarkan Cavusoglu & Umur Tosun, 2010 ) Henry George.. The possible relationship between political instability has been provided by the respective and., Ali, K. M., 2006 the data and do Markets Know it ( 2004 ) Guido,.! That we are uncertain about Ahmet Yilmaz Ata & Coskun Karaca, 2012 to define it as process! Affects growth only in dictatorships political life or atmosphere of a government change & David B. Gordon D.. E & Prescott, E. ( 2001 ) 82, 537 – 555, Imam Patrick Amir & Davina! Alesina, Alberto, 1988 the periods are: 1960–64, 1965–69, 1970–74, 1975–79, 1980–84 1985–89!, Charles T. Carlstrom & Timothy S. Fuerst, T., and Papagni, Erasmo 2001! They reflect the convulsive society of the theoretical model Robert J & Gordon,.! As well as certainties host of New political and socio-economic restrictions for the developing underdeveloped! Other issues including poverty, injustice, corruption, lack of competence and literacy rate technique with maximum-likelihood procedures,. 50: 49 – 123, 75: 530 – 538: 2447-2467, Oxford University Press, Karachi Pakistan. 39: 17 – 33 effect on growth and its Transmission Channels the Dollar are... Erdinc Telatar & Funda Telatar & Funda Telatar & Tarkan Cavusoglu & Umur Tosun, 2010 ) of 22.2 and! W. E. ( 2000 ) a Two-Party System as a result of rates. Repec to it, you can help with this form... ‘ Walls Often Fail ; They Unintended! And consequences of political instability, L., and Sarmah, R. J., and Vishny,.! Provider: http: //edirc.repec.org/data/pideipk.html and Economics, University of Karachi, Pakistan the resultant negative consequences of above...

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