377ff., n. 63 where Grenet is credited with changing Boyce’s mind concerning the Oracle of Hystaspes). 67-76), Literatur, HO I.IV.2, Leiden and Cologne, 1968. She also gave her current views on the problem of the Zoroastrian calendars (ZACV, pp. 359-72. Textual Sources for the Study of Zoroastrianism, ed. Ph.D. thesis, University of Tehran, 1966 (preliminary research under W. B. Henning and principal draft completed under Mary Boyce and D. N. MacKenzie at SOAS, London and subsequently J. P. de Menasce at ÉPHE, Paris). Mary C. Boyce Appointed Provost of Columbia University. Almut Hintze, BSOAS 70/1, 2006, pp. 294-99. The year 1977 saw the publication of one of her finest works, based on her 1963-64 field-work and entitled A Persian stronghold of Zoroastrianism. The Pahlavi Rivāyat accompanying the Dādestān ī Dēnīg, 2 vols., Copenhagen, 1990 (Ph.D. thesis, University of London, 1984). “On the Orthodoxy of Sasanian Zoroastrianism,” BSOAS 59/1, 1996, pp. Omid Behbehāni and Abu’l-Ḥasan Tahāmi as Fehrest vāžegān-e adabiyāt-e mānavi, Tehran, 2006; Review: BSOAS 42/3, 1979, pp. 171-90. Boyce explains the continuity with pre- Zoroastrian tradition especially the Yazatas since the prophet altered the concepts only in so far as they were not to be venerated as independent deities but as evocations or agents of Ahura Mazdā (p. 111). 508-26. issue]). She also began to turn her attention to Zoroastrianism and published, for example, “Some Reflections on Zurvanism,” BSOAS 29/2, 1957, pp. 22-177) which she also believed to be part of that great continuity (except Zoroaster only venerated beings that were spәntā). 99-115), A Zoroastrian Tapestry: Art, Religion and Culture, eds., P. Godrej and F. Punthakey Mistree, Ahmedabad and Cliffedgeway, NJ, 2002. ʿAskar Bahrāmi as Zardoštiyān: bāvarhā va ādāb-e dini-ye ānhā , Tehran, 2002, 10th repr., 2009; Review: ArOr 50/1, 1982, pp. Boyce was a recipient of the Royal Asiatic Society's Burton Medal, and of the Sykes Medal of the Royal Society of Asian Affairs. The narrative in the Pahlavi book Ardā Virāz Nāmag, she presumes (p. 119), belongs to the early days of the religion. 125-148) she stresses the continuity of tradition through the Achaemenids, as evidenced especially by Darius and in the Greek literature (see GREECE vi), although she asserts one major change and that was the introduction of fire temples under Babylonian influence (pp. 35/2, 2006, pp. 157-60. “The Lady and the Scribe: some further reflections on Anāhit and Tīr,” A Green Leaf, Barg-e sabz: Papers in honour of Jes Asmussen, eds., J. Duchesne-Guillemin et al., Acta Iranica 28, Leiden, 1988, pp. 65, 87-94); Narten apud Boyce, new foreword to HZ I, 3d repr., 1996, p. xiv, and suggested as quite probably so in Narten apud Hintze, BSOAS 65/1, 2002, p. 32; q.v. In 1975, Boyce presented the results of her research at her Ratanbai Katrak lecture series at Oxford University. These radical scholarly theories are stated as simple fact rather than being argued for. In 1944, Boyce joined the faculty of the Royal Holloway College, University of London, where she taught Anglo-Saxon literature and archaeology until 1946. Her sadly unfinished HZ IV (With Albert de Jong, Parthian Zoroastrianism, 2 vols., HO, Leiden, forthcoming) will continue the narrative down to the end of the Arsacid period. Further on in chapter 9 (pp. Simultaneously she continued her studies, this time in Persian languages, under the guidance of Vladimir Minorsky at the School of Oriental and African Studies from 1945 to 1947. 15-22). around 1200, seems the most reasonable one to postulate” (ZACV, p. 45, and a view she confirmed in the foreword to Zoroastrians, 2001, p. xiii), and locating the prophet’s homeland as the Inner Asian Steppes (see AVESTAN GEOGRAPHY). He is perpetually striving to persuade men of the truth of a great message, obedience to which will bring them everlasting life. 69-76; “On Mithra, lord of fire,” Monumentum H. S. Nyberg, I, Acta Iranica 4, Tehran and Liège, 1975, pp. The overland journey and residence in these remote villages must have been arduous for her since she had recently suffered a painful injury to her back which troubled her for the rest of her life. “The Zoroastrian houses of Yazd,” Iran and Islam: in memory of the late Vladimir Minorsky, ed., C. E. Bosworth, Edinburgh, 1971, pp. Although Boyce acknowledges that there were changes in the religion, for example, the introduction of temple fires (p. 184), the central theme of the final chapter (ZACV, pp. 62-80. Lanham, MD, 1989. Review: Michael Fischer, Iranian Studies 10/4, 1977, pp. 1-38; and “Preliminary note by Professor Mary Boyce to Agha Homayoun Sanati’s translation of her article ‘On the Calendar of Zoroastrian Feasts’,” Ātaš-e dorun, The Fire Within: Jamshid Soroush Soroushian Memorial Volume II, eds., Carlo Cereti and Farrokh Vajifdar, Bloomington, IN, 2003, pp. 20-29. Review of Malcolm Colledge, The Parthian Period, BSOAS 53/2, 1990, pp. Sarah Stewart, The concept of ‘Spirit’ in the Old Testament and Zoroastrian Gathas, London, 1993 (M.A. 239-57. 9 (pp. 12 (pp. 4 (p. 148); “Pahlavi Literature” vol. She developed her theory of the continuity of Zoroastrian belief and practice from the time of the prophet right down to modern times. 277-82. Her mother, Nora, was a granddaughter of the noted historian of the Puritan revolution, Samuel Rawson Gardiner. xxi–xxvi; an earlier one including personalia is in Bio-bibliographies de 134 Savants, Acta Iranica 20, Leiden, 1979, pp. diss., 2 vols., University of Chicago, 1973. The Manichaean Hymn Cycles in Parthian, London Oriental Studies 3, London, 1954; Reviews: BSOAS 29/2, 1957, pp. 620-24. Review of R. Ghirshman, L’Iran et la migration des Indo-Aryens et des Iraniens, JAOS 99/1, 1979, pp. Besides articles and chapters cited supra in entry, also note the following significant studies (listed chronologically). thesis, University of London, 1985). Till her demise, it compelled her to work while lying on her back and writing everything by hand. 781-85). “Mithra Khšathrapati and his brother Ahura,” BAI 4, n.s., 1990 , pp. She scours the fragmentary sources to reconstruct the history of Zoroastrian oppression and persecution as they were gradually driven from the great urban centers and were compelled to live in poverty, hidden from Muslim view in villages in the Yazdi plain and not even allowed to build wind-towers (see BĀDGIR) to cool their houses in the scorching summer heat. 11.1.17, p. 613: “[I]t has been a weakness in the western study of Zoroastrianism that it has concentrated largely on texts. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, Aotearoa New Zealand - Cited by 207 - Māori - corpora - lexicography - indigenous - bicultural 8-9 and Hamazor 4I/2, 2006, pp. Nora Elisabeth Mary Boyce (2 August 1920 – 4 April 2006) was a British scholar of Iranian languages, and an authority on Zoroastrianism. 59-77. and ed., F. Vahman, Tehran, 1970, pp. 362-468; also idem, “Persian Religion in the Achaemenid Age,” Camb. 162-63. In 1952, she was awarded a doctorate in Oriental Studies from the University of Cambridge. In addition to her numerous articles in journals and Festschriften, Boyce was also a prolific contributor of 84 entries to EIr., 14 of which were written in collaboration with F. M. Kotwal (reviewed in Jamsheed Choksy, “Ancient Religions,” Iranian Studies 31/3-4, 1998 , pp. Zoroastrianism: the Rediscovery of Missing Chapters in Man’s Religious History, Teaching Aids for the Study of Inner Asia 6, Bloomington, 1977. Peshotan Anklesaria, “A Critical edition of the unedited portion of the Dādestān-i dīnīk,” (joint supervision with Henning, unpubl. In a purely academic study of religion it is possible to make a subjective choice of what seems significant whereas encounters with a living faith force one to accept its adherents’ own understanding of its essentials, which are likely, moreover, to be embodied in its main observances.” Having studied with devout priests, she came to take a different view of priesthood from that which had dominated Protestant scholarship as exemplified by J. H. Moulton (Early Zoroastrianism, Hibbert Lectures, London, 1913, pp. Homāyun Ṣanʿatiʾzāda, as Tārikh-e kiš-e Zartošt, 3 vols. Nora Elisabeth Mary Boyce was a British scholar of Iranian languages, and an authority on Zoroastrianism. 82-84. 25-40. Review of Jürgen Hampel, Die Kopenhagener Handschrift Cod. A Catalogue of the Iranian Manuscripts in the Manichean Script in the German Turfan Collection, Institut für Orientforschung 45, Berlin, 1960; Review: BSOAS 28/1, 1965, pp. 59-73. Review of Ph. W. Foy, London, 1978; repr. She summed this up in a little-known article published for the Open University program in Britain, “The Continuity of the Zoroastrian Quest,” in Man’s Religious Quest: a Reader, ed. 261-70. Johanna Narten, Der Yasna Haptaŋhāiti, Wiesbaden, 1986, p. 126; and Almut Hintze, A Zoroastrian liturgy: the worship in seven chapters (Yasna 35-41), Wiesbaden, 2007, p. 92). “A tomb for Cassandane,” Orientalia Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin emerito oblata, Acta Iranica 23, Leiden, 1984, pp. Fischer himself resided in Yazd during 1970-71 to collect anthropological materials for his doctoral research, “Zoroastrian Iran between myth and praxis,” unpubl. 43-56). Boyce remained professor at SOAS until her retirement in 1982, continuing as Professor Emerita and a professorial research associate until her death in 2006. Chadwick’s wife and collaborator in scholarship, Nora Kershaw Chadwick (1891-1972), had enrolled to study Persian under Professor Vladimir Minorsky (1877-1966) at SOAS, which had been temporarily relocated to Cambridge during the war, and Boyce followed her lead. The Professor Mary Boyce Prize for the study of Asian religions has been instituted by the Royal Asiatic Society in her memory. Her speciality remained the religions of speakers of Eastern Iranian languages, in particular Manichaeanism and Zoroastrianism. 243-53. 270-89. Review of Malcolm Colledge, The Parthians, BSOAS 31/3, 1968, pp. It is worth looking at this volume in more detail as it is the last monograph she published based on her five Columbia Lectures on Iranian Studies, delivered in 1985 at the Center for Iranian Studies in New York. This was followed by volume 2 of History of Zoroastrianism in 1982 (also as a part of the Orientalistik monograph series), and volume 3 in 1991 which she co-authored with Frantz Grenet. “Zariadres and Zarēr, BSOAS XVII/3, 1955, pp. 32-61), Boyce reconstructed the pre-Zoroastrian cosmology and cosmogony (see COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY i) by using mostly the Pahlavi Bundahišn alongside some parallels with Vedic thought because, as she enunciated in HZ I, p. 131, she believed that since Zoroaster was a moral thinker inspired by his vision of the divine, he probably accepted existing hypotheses rather than evolving cosmological ideas of his own. Current Teaching. 41-63); “The Parthian: defenders of the land and faith,” (pp. 142-48). Boyce was an outstanding teacher and supervised the research of many who went on to hold professorships (see infra). In an email sent to students and faculty, President Lee Bollinger announced the appointment of Dean Mary C. Boyce as the University’s new Provost. It is accepted that Zurvan ‘est en general le dieu du firmament lumineux et etoile … avant tout le dieu du sort … en general regarde comme un dieu quadriforme’; and that his cult was ‘enracine surtout dans l'lran occidental’. Alan Williams, tr. Mary Boyce of Columbia has been named one of 10 National Scholars at Clemson University for 2019. Yumiko Yamamoto, “The Zoroastrian Temple Cult of Fire in Archaeology and Literature (I),” Orient: Report of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan 15, 1979, pp. 591-92. 44-54. Boyce is known as one of the chief campaigners for an earlier date for the prophet than the previously common sixth-century dating. Boyce also believed it was critical to understand the way traditions were preserved orally. and tr. 45-52; and “The Parthian gōsān and Iranian Minstrel Tradition,” JRAS, 1957, pp. 25-36). 108-10 and associated notes). 95-105. She was consulting editor to the EIr. For the Dean of SEAS at Columbia University, see, John R. Hinnells, âBoyce, (Nora Elisabeth) Mary (1920â2006)â, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Jan 2010; online edn, Sept 2012, Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, A History of Zoroastrianism: Vol 1, The Early Period, Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Textual Sources for the Study of Zoroastrianism, A History of Zoroastrianism: Vol. A/Prof. Ārzu Rasuli, Našr-e dāneš 22/2, Summer 2006, pp. In an exceptional move, the Zoroastrian Trust Funds of Europe, London, held a memorial liturgy for her and posthumously declared her an “Honoured Friend” by a change in its constitution to permit bestowal of this title on non-Zoroastrians (British Association for the Study of Religions Bulletin 111, 2007, p. 4). Boyce’s field-work transformed her studies in two ways. After a discussion of the haoma ritual and the Gāthās, she concluded (p. 163-91) is that which has been seen to be the lynchpin of her general theories, namely, the fidelity and endurance of the ancient teachings and practices, not only from the time of the prophet, but even from pre-Zoroastrian times. 111-37), part of which Boyce observed personally (pp. 386-87, JAOS 78/1, pp. In 1946 Boyce returned to Cambridge and embarked on her doctoral dissertation on “The Parthian hymn cycles” under the joint supervision of Henning and Harold W. Bailey (1899-1996). For a comprehensive bibliography up to 1984 see the list compiled by D. M. Johnson in Papers in Honour of Professor Mary Boyce, eds., H. W. Bailey et al., Acta Iranica 24-25, pp. Dissertations or studies under Boyce’s guidance. 139-41. After her return from Iran she reflected at length on the significance of what she had witnessed, and produced concomitantly some Parthian and Manichean studies as well as articles on Iran, including, for example, “The fire-temples of Kerman,” Acta Orientalia 30, 1966, pp. James Russell, Zoroastrianism in Armenia, Cambridge, MA, 1987 (Ph.D. thesis, University of London, 1982). Nora Elisabeth Mary Boyce Born August 2, 1920(1920 08 02) Darjeeling, India Died April 4, 2006(2006 04 04) (aged 85) Occupation Philologist Known f BOYCE, Nora Elizabeth Mary (b. Darjeeling, India, 2 August 1920; d. London, 4 April 2006), scholar of Zoroastrianism and its relevant languages, and Professor of Iranian Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) of the University of London (FIGURE 1). “Its origins are almost certainly pre-Zoroastrian, so that basically the rite is likely to have been maintained from the prophet’s own day” (p. 167). 630-32. A History of Zoroastrianism: Under the Achaemenians, vol. There is no room for sacerdotal functions as a really integral part of such a man’s gospel; and of ritual or spells we hear as little as we expect to hear.” Boyce rejected such polarization and saw Zoroaster as both teacher and prophet, inspired, as she was, by the priests she encountered in Iran. A Persian Stronghold of Zoroastrianism: based on the Ratanbai Katrak Lectures, 1975, Persian Studies Series 12, Oxford, 1977; repr. The major change she sees in the Sasanian period was the emergence of a written form of the orally transmitted Avesta although she argues this affected only the learned priestly classes (ZACV, pp. ... MC Boyce, M Breadmore, M Macka, P Doble, PR Haddad. “Iranian Festivals,” Camb. However, she began to focus increasingly on the Zoroastrian religion and its rituals, with articles such as “Ātaš-zōhr and āb-zōhr,” JRAS, 1966, pp. 22-38). and tr., The Pahlavi Rivāyat of Āturfarnbag and Farnbag-srōš, BSOAS 35/1, 1972, pp. A History of Zoroastrianism: the Early Period, vol. In reconstructing the religion of the various Achaemenid monarchs she often uses evidence taken from living usage (for example, p. 70, on Cambyses making offerings for his father’s soul and p. 248 on the calendar observed by Artaxerxes II, 404-358 BCE). repr., 1996; tr. 19-31. M. Boyce, Serie Orientale Roma XXXVIII-PHS 9, Rome, 1968. 27: eine Sammlung von Zoroastrischen Gebeten, Beschwörungsformeln, Vorschriften und wissenschaftlichen Überlieferungen, BSOAS 40/1 1977, p. 160. Review of Guy Monnot, Penseurs musulmans et religions iraniennes: ‘Abd al-Jabbār et ses devanciers, BSOAS 40/1, 1977, p. 162. Review of François Decret, Mani et la tradition manichéenne, BSOAS 40/1, 1977, pp. 201-15. First, she had studied ancient texts from a linguistic perspective and, although she did not have a strictly religious upbringing, living with devout Zoroastrians stimulated her interest in the religious aspect of their lives. In recognition of her pioneering field-work she was awarded the Burton Gold Medal of the Royal Asiatic Society in 1972, and, in 1985 the Sir Percy Sykes Memorial Medal of the Royal Society of Asian Affairs. ): “There is thus no reliable evidence from the Gāthās to set against the tradition and the observance of Zoroaster’s followers, which testify to his maintenance of the blood sacrifice and haoma cult, together with the other rites of the ancient Ahuric religion.” Later (p. 223) she wrote, “It seems natural that Zoroaster as priest should have been concerned to give his new doctrines expression in observances, so that belief could declare itself through worship and be sustained by it; and there is no reason therefore to doubt the tradition that attributes to the prophet himself the founding of the feasts later known as gahāmbārs” (see GĀHĀNBĀR; cf. The Royal Asiatic Society's annual Boyce Prize for outstanding contributions to the study of religion is named after her. 35-40. Hist. 792-815; “Jašnhā-ye Irāniyān,” tr. 19-27); “Zoroastrianism in ancient imperial times,” (pp. The first substantial indicator of Boyce’s grand theory of the continuity of Zoroastrian belief and practice emerged in volume I of her magisterial four-volume, A History of Zoroastrianism (hereinafter HZ). “Rapithwin, Nō Rūz, and the feast of Sade,” Pratidānam: Indian, Iranian and Indo-European studies presented to Francisicus Bernardus Jacobus Kuiper, ed., J. C. Heesterman et al., The Hague and Paris, 1968, pp. Foreword to Delphine Menant, The Parsis: being an enlarged & copious annotated, up to date English edition of Mlle. The turning point in her life was a 12-month study-leave in the Zoroastrian villages around Yazd, notably in Šarifābād in 1963-64. She completed her thesis in 1952, and it was published as The Manichaean Hymn Cycles in Parthian two years later. For example, she argues that the čahārom rite on the fourth day after death, when the living bid farewell to the soul, which can be traced back to Sasanian times because the Parsis observe the same rite. II, HO I.1.2.2A, Leiden, 1982; Review: JRAS, 1984, pp. “Priests, Cattle and Men,” BSOAS 50/3, 1987, pp. The Letter of Tansar, tr. She was born in Darjeeling where her parents were vacationing to escape the heat of the plains during the summer. This enthusiasm was also manifested in her writing, in the two books designed for students: first, her ground-breaking study of Zoroastrianism (Zoroastrians: their religious beliefs and practices (London, 1979), weaving the narrative from pre-Zoroastrian times down to the present in both India and Iran thus highlighting her conviction of the continuity of the Zoroastrian tradition. Were meditations on the calendar of Zoroastrian feasts, ” BAI 4 1969... Der Zoroastrismus, ” BSOAS 13/4, 1951, pp writing everything by hand, Freiburg im Brisgau,,... 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