policy vs program vs procedure

You might have a disciplinary or grievance procedure that links to one or more policies, but usually procedures are more general. Difference between rules and policies must be a point to focus on for every employee. is that program is to enter a program or other instructions into (a computer or other electronic device) to instruct it to do a particular task while policy is … In simple terms, a policy is a high-level statement of management intent that formally establishes requirements to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. ), Controls are assigned to stakeholders, based on applicable statutory, regulatory and contractual obligations. Process vs. Work Instruction. These documents supply the Compliance Officer, executive management and the workforce with an understanding of what is expected in the workplace and how to operate effectively. Programs c. Procedures d. Standards. Policies can be courses of action to guide and influence decisions. Procedures: Procedures are the operational processes required to implement institutional policy. For social media, policies are things like no profanity, no obscene images, no spamming, and no using business accounts for personal social media. ComplianceForge does not warrant or guarantee that the information will not be offensive to any user. The process should be clear and cover almost any variation of a problem. Procedures are often documented in "team share" repositories, such as a wiki, SharePoint page, workflow management tool, etc. Knowing the relationship between policies and procedures ensures that a proper review will occur when there is a change. The second are mini-mission statementsfrequently associated with procedures. Need procedures for CMMC? We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. External influencers, such as statutory, regulatory, or contractual obligations, are commonly the root cause for a policy’s existence. Policies are implemented by establishing clear, compliant expectations (guidelines and procedures), assuring that all involved staff members are familiar with these expectations and monitoring performance to assure that these expectations are followed. Definitions. All too often, documentation is not scoped properly, and this leads to the governance function being more of an obstacle as compared to an asset. As you can see, there is a difference between policies, procedures, standards, and guidelines. This website does not render professional services advice and is not a substitute for dedicated professional services. Policy describes the why; also accountabilities, business rules for any decisions to be taken and corrective action/ disciplinary actions should the policy not being adhered to. The concept of a Control, putting mechanisms in place to ensure you get the expected result, is not specific to SOPs.  Any well structured Procedure should have an adequate level of controls built into the process.  The bar is raised for SOPs though.  First, the number and effectiveness of the controls in the process may increase.  Second, and more importantly, evidence must be generated. When undertaking any project that involves creating or modify Policies, Procedures and SOPs, understanding when to use which document and the difference between them can help increase efficiency, compliance and effectiveness. Procedure vs. Policies are not that technical, they are more like rules, while procedures are more detailed step by step system. However, in many organizations, the inverse occurs where the task of publishing the entire range of cybersecurity documentation is delegated down to individuals who might be competent technicians but do not have insights into the strategic direction of the organization. There are many similarities between these two … According to question i will define each term separately- 1. Company policies tend to have topics such as social media u… Explain the rule rather than how to implement the rule 3. Businesses normally set rules on how the the work gets done, and will use standard operating procedures, called SOPs, as well as a set of policies and procedures to accomplish work predictably and efficiently. They convey what is and isn’t an acceptable level of quality. The terms ‘Policies’, ‘Processes’, and ‘Procedures’ are too often interchanged. Procedures are made for the successful completion of a program. Policies: Plan is a roadmap to achieve the goal: Policies are the guidelines/set of principles which guide the concerned authority in its course of action: Planning is about making plans on how to achieve the objective: Policy is the guideline to achieve the objective Procedures should be designed as a series of steps to accomplish an end result. An organization should be managed properly. Staff are happier as it is clear what they need to do They are made for directing the lower level workers of the organisation. A policy is the what, procedures are the how. version of the Cybersecur... NIST released the final version of NIST SP 800-53B that identifies what NIST SP 800-53 R5 controls f... Story Time - Using Documentation To Tell Your CMMC Compliance StoryIf you are looking at a future CM... Our customer service is here to help you get answers quickly! Secure Controls Framework (SCF) Compliance Bundles, Cybersecurity Policies, Standards & Procedures, Privacy & Data Protection (GDPR, CCPA & more), SOC 2 Compliance (Trust Services Criteria), Secure Engineering (Privacy & Security By Design), Audit-Ready Cybersecurity & Privacy Practices, Hierarchical Cybersecurity Governance Framework, Integrated Cybersecurity Governance Model, Operationalizing Cybersecurity Planning Model, NIST Cybersecurity Framework (CSF) Compliance, CIS Critical Security Controls (CSC) Compliance, International Data Security Laws & Regulations, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), US Federal Data Security Laws & Regulations, FACTA - Fair & Accurate Credit Transactions Act, US State Data Security Laws & Regulations, Oregon Consumer Identity Theft Protection Act, Documented Procedures & Control Activities, CMMC Kill Chain - Creating A Project Plan, Policies vs Standards vs Controls vs Procedures, Statutory vs Regulatory vs Contractual Compliance. 1. In short, it is an interpretative plan, that guides the enterprise in realizing its goal. Exceptions are always to Standards and never to Policies. A change in a policy could have an impact across many different processes. In an effort to help clarify this concept, ComplianceForge Hierarchical Cybersecurity Governance Framework™ (HCGF) takes a comprehensive view towards the necessary documentation components that are key to being able to demonstrate evidence of due diligence and due care. If you have compliance questions, you should consult a cybersecurity or privacy professional to discuss your specific needs. policies, procedures, and delegations of authority will enable this effort by addressing a number of issues: 1. but policy is a set of rules and regulation created by the top level management, planning is how to faceing a particular problem. When effectively deployed, policies help focus attention and resources on high priority issues, aligning and merging efforts to achieve the institutional vision. Policies, standards and controls are expected to be published for anyone within the organization to have access to, since it applies organization-wide. Let’s explore these terms individually and develop a better understanding: ★ Guideline. Procedures are the sequential steps which direct the people for any activity. A program is comprised of multiple projects that aim at outcomes and benefits (not outputs). ... policies, rules, and a. You need to PROVE that the Supervisor saw the timesheet and signed off.  This could be done through manually signature, or ideally through electronic approval in a timesheet system. Policies vs. Plans vs. A procedure is a particular way of accomplishing something. We say this because for smooth and effective operations in any organization, rules and policies hold great significance. The evidence that is generated under an SOP is critical as it is what is used for testing and audits. If a standard cannot be met, it is generally necessary to implement a compensating control to mitigate the risk associated with that deficiency. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. The same can be said for Procedures … Business. ComplianceForge has simplified the concept of the hierarchical nature of cybersecurity and privacy documentation in the following downloadable diagram to demonstrate the unique nature of these components, as well as the dependencies that exist: One of the most important things to keep in mind with procedures is that the "ownership" is different than that of policies and standards: Given this approach to how documentation is structured, based on "ownership" of the documentation components: Governance is built on words. Reply They set direction, guide and influence decision-making. A picture is sometimes worth 1,000 words – this concept can be seen here in a swim lane diagram. Policies, procedures, and other compliance-related documents are the necessary foundation for a successful Compliance Program. If the goal is to be “audit ready” with documentation, having excessively-wordy documentation is misguided. Another significant distinction with an SOP over a procedure are audits.  When you implement an SOP, it should be with the full understanding that someone at some time will be performing tests against your SOP to ensure it is being followed.  This should certainly be taken into account when creating your SOP.  Extra attention needs to be put into providing evidence of actions, measurement of results and clarity of responsibility. Policies guide the day-to-day actions and strategies, but allow for flexibility – the big keyword for policies is “guiding”. Read exclusive information about cybersecurity from Compliance Forge. Provide flexibility for unforeseen circumstances. It should be used as a guide to decision making under a given set of circumstances within the framework of objectives, goals and management philosophies as determined by senior management. policies reduce uncertainty in strategy formulation and further downstream along the value chain. Overview Below that are specific implementation documentations – processes, guidelines, and procedures. So, to make it easier, you can look at the difference between a process and a procedure as “what” versus “how.”A process consists of three elements: … Policy: Policy provides the operational framework within which the institution functions. Please contact us for clarification so that we can help you find the right solution for your cybersecurity and privacy compliance needs. There are really two types of policies. Are often scrutinized in litigation targeting agency liability; they should be as simple and direct as possible 4. This should give you a complete understanding of how to set up all three items for your business.You’ll be on your way to operating more efficiently, which should lead to even more success. There are difference between the two. Hope that helps! Excessive prose that explains concepts. Guidelines are generally recommended practices that are based on industry-recognized practices or cultural norms within an organization. Policies: Plan is a roadmap to achieve the goal: Policies are the guidelines/set of principles which guide the concerned authority in its course of action: Planning is about making plans on how to achieve the objective: Policy is the guideline to achieve the objective An indicator of a well-run governance program is the implementation of hierarchical documentation since it involves bringing together the right individuals to provide appropriate direction based on the scope of their job function. Are more general vs. specific rules. is that procedure is (computing) a subroutine or function coded to perform a specific task while program is (computing): a software application, or a collection of software applications, designed to perform a specific task. Policies are formal statements produced and supported by senior management. Several reasons why this form of documentation is considered poorly-architected documentation include: In the context of good cybersecurity documentation, these components are hierarchical and build on each other to build a strong governance structure that utilizes an integrated approach to managing requirements. ... An indicator of a well-run governance program is the implementation of hierarchical documentation since it involves bringing together the right individuals to provide appropriate direction based on the scope of their job function. But one distinction we try to maintain is policy vs. procedure. Operations should properly run so that the goals of a certain organization will be achieved. Human nature is always the mortal enemy of unclear documentation, as people will not take the time to read it. Policies are generally adopted by a governance body within an organization. Questions? Controlled Unclassified Information (CUI), Hierarchical Cybersecurity Governance Framework™, Policies, standards and controls are designed to be centrally-managed at the corporate level (e.g., governance, risk & compliance team, CISO, etc. However, a standard is a formally-established requirement in regard to a process, action or configuration that is meant to be an objective, quantifiable expectation to be met (e.g., 8 character password, change passwords every 90 days, etc.). The first are rules frequently used as employee policies. Procedures vs. Standards By Rich. Policies vs Standards vs Controls vs Procedures. While policies are broad guidelines that reflect the aims and objectives of the organization, rules are meant more for day to day operations to proceed smoothly without any glitches. Others merely don’t give a fuzz about it and often neglect the importance of knowing the difference between the two. Procedures are probably the best understood concept when looking at Polices, Procedures and SOPs.  Life is full of procedures that need to be followed.  Most people think of steps in a specific order when they think about a procedure and this is correct!  A procedure is a series of steps that need to be completed in order to accomplish an activity.  A well structured procedure typically starts each step with an action.  Why?  Because something needs to get accomplished.  Depending on the audience and purpose, procedures can range from verbal instructions to informal work instructions to visual workflows to formal documents. The information below is meant to help get everyone on the same sheet of music, since words do have meanings and it is important to understand cybersecurity and privacy requirements. but policies are already implemented. The program may include: Standards are finite, quantifiable requirements that satisfy Control Objectives. They can be organization-wide, issue-specific or system specific. SOYP Inc. has been making jean shorts profitably for nearly 100 years, but today things will be different. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. The fact that SOP or Standard Operation Procedure has the term “Procedure” included in the name, it is safe to assume that there are some similarities.  At face value, a Procedure and SOP could look identical.  If you look at how to structure a Procedure or SOP, both have many similarities including scope, revision control, stakeholders, steps and responsibilities.  They are actually so similar, that you can technically convert any SOP to just a Procedure, but the reverse may not be true.  So what makes an SOP so special? Compliance Forge, LLC (ComplianceForge) disclaims any liability whatsoever for any documentation, information, or other material which is or may become a part of the website. All too often, documentation is not scoped properly, and this leads to the governance function being more of an obstacle as compared to an asset. Policies and procedures must be reviewed at least once every five years. Your organization’s policies should reflect your objectives for your information security program. Policy is a high level statement uniform across organization. A policy is a high-level statement of management intent that formally establishes requirements to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. ComplianceForge This is where the concept of hierarchical documentation is vitally important since there are strategic, operational, and tactical documentation components that have to be addressed to support governance functions. In reality, these terms have quite different implications, and those differences should be kept in mind since the use of improper terminology has cascading effects that can negatively impact the internal controls of an organization. Controls testing is designed to monitor and measure specific aspects of a Standard to ensure a Standard is properly implemented. But is it? Most would agree that such a scenario is absurd since the board of directors should be focused on the strategic direction of the company and not day-to-day procedures. 1.   The Policies of the road don’t tell you what time to leave, what vehicle to use or even what route to take. Cybersecurity, IT professionals and legal professionals routinely abuse the terms “policy” and “standard” as if these words were synonymous. Example: It is a policy to wear a tie when facing a customer. Exceptions should only be for standards when there is a legitimate business reason or technical limitation that precludes a standard from being followed (e.g., vulnerability scanning exception for a "fragile" application that breaks when scanned by the default scanning profile). A policy is a guiding principle used to set directionin an organization. Although separate, it is actually the relationship between your Policies, Procedures and SOPs that determines the effectiveness of your organization.  It is not just about understanding the individual pieces, but how they fit together.  Even in small organizations, the combination of these three areas can get confusing quickly.  It is important that all of your Policies, Procedures and SOPs are organized and managed effectively to properly track what is current, who it applies to and how they relate to each other. 2 Educator answers. It can be a course of action to guide and influence decisions. To be sure, the distinction is not black-and-white; there will always be some procedure in your policy manual and vice versa. Find out the importance of these documents for your business. Driven by business objectives and convey the amount of risk senior management is willing to acc… The terms “standards” and “procedures” often get tangled up in the discussion of guidelines vs policies. Procedures are by their very nature de-centralized, where control implementation at the control level is defined to explain how the control is addressed. Policy is defined by a set of rules A program is a set of step to do something (for example, to execute the policy). This framework addresses the interconnectivity of policies, control objectives, standards, guidelines, controls, risks, procedures & metrics. ‘Policies’, ‘Processes’, and ‘Procedures’ should be considered distinct types of documentation. Control Objectives are targets or desired conditions to be met that are designed to ensure that policy intent is met. All Rights Reserved. Policy is defined by a set of rules. There are number of reasons an organization may find itself under a form of Regulatory Compliance.  Ranging from the type of organization (not-for-profit, Public companies, Healthcare) to industry specific standardizations (ISO).  One common element is that each of these Regulatory or Standardizations can require not only specific content of your SOPs, but may even require entirely new SOPs.    This is typically where SOPs get a bad name with people.  Although you should still structure your SOPs with the proper balance between efficiency and control, there will certainly be additional steps and output needed that goes beyond a basic Procedure getting you from A to B.  Since the additional content is driven by released Regulation or Standardizations, it is also important to track the specific Regulations that apply to your individual SOPs.  This allows you to quickly find and review all related SOPs if the Regulation changes in the future. Policies: At Lexipol, we define policies as “Guiding principles intended to influence decisions and actions.” Policies have the following characteristics: 1. © Compliance Forge, LLC (ComplianceForge). Process, Procedure, Policy – What is the difference? Users don’t know what is important. A procedure is a set of steps explaining how to do an activity, for example a procedure to purchase office equipment for a new employee. Policy. ‘Policies’, ‘Processes’, and ‘Procedures’ should be considered distinct types of documentation. Guidelines help augment Standards when discretion is permissible. While guidelines are made to sort out things and put things in order, policy on the other hand is a MUST follow procedures since it involves decision, reasoning, and values. Unlike Standards, Controls define the actual safeguards and countermeasures that are assigned to a stakeholder (e.g., an individual or team) to implement. In reality, no one should ever ask for an exception to a policy. In business parlance, the terms strategy refers to is a unique plan designed with the aim of achieving a competitive position in the market and also to reach the organisational goals and objectives. I was catching up with Rob Newby’s blog and this post on dealing with security policies vs. standards/processes caught my eye. Manage, collaborate, approve and distribute your Policies and SOPs. ... Policy vs Standard vs Control vs Procedure. The procedures then support the policies that you have in place. A multiple-page “policy” document that blends high-level security concepts (e.g., policies), configuration requirements (e.g., standards), and work assignments (e.g., procedures) is an example of poor governance documentation that leads to confusion and inefficiencies across technology, cybersecurity, and privacy operations. Most organizations have some form of documentation that is referred to as policies, procedures, SOPs or all three.  As each of these documents have significant impact on any organization, understanding how they are related to each other is critical for optimal operations within your organization.  Not only does each type of document have a different purpose,  but knowing the differences between policies vs procedures vs sops can have a significant impact on compliance in regulated environments. As nouns the difference between procedure and program Your policies should be like a building foundation; built to last and resistant to change or erosion. They establish a framework of management philosophies, aims and objectives. c) Update An organization must follow a certain system so that it can be clear to everybody what goals it wants to reach as an organization. Many individuals when asked about guidelines and policies don’t know how to distinguish one from the other.  There are several key distinctions between a Procedure and an SOP, including: Trucks need to go into a Weigh station.  A fuel tanker for example, needs to follow the same rules of the road, can follow the exact same route as our commuter, but may need to stop at a Weigh station along the way.  They may even need to produce documentation about the load they are carrying.  Same policies, same procedure, but more checks and more documentation. Reflect the “rules” governing the organization and employee conduct 2. NIST 800-171 Compliance - Where Do I Start? Similar to 'laws', it states what is allowed and what not and how to redress it. Since policy is to be followed strictly, there are punishments to those who try to violate any of the policies imposed. The entire risk as to the use of this website is assumed by the user.ComplianceForge reserves the right to refuse service, in accordance with applicable statutory and regulatory parameters. The terms ‘Policies’, ‘Processes’, and ‘Procedures’ are too often interchanged. Policy vs. Procedure. A p… The result: no matter what area or process, employees can get the big picture, drill down to the details. Controls are the technical, administrative or physical safeguards that exist to prevent, detect or lessen the ability of a threat to exploit a vulnerability. The same can be said for Procedures and SOPs.  Many procedures are part of a much larger process and are broken into manageable pieces.  Changes in one procedure can have a direct impact on another, especially if the output is changed from one process that is needed in another. A multiple-page “policy” document that blends high-level security concepts (e.g., policies), configuration requirements (e.g., standards), and work assignments (e.g., procedures) is an example of poor governance documentation that leads to confusion and inefficiencies across technology, cybersecurity, and privacy operations. While a procedure is a subroutine that can not be changed you need do. Out the importance of these the policies simply govern all of these terms individually and develop a understanding. Wants to reach as an organization you might have a disciplinary or procedure... Activity throughout the institution develop a better understanding: ★ guideline expected be. And SOPs is defined by a governance body within an organization guidance needed to coordinate and execute throughout., law or regulation and in many cases all of the organisation the two of.... Be like a building foundation ; built to last and resistant to change or erosion of having documentation! Play distinct roles great significance e.g., statutory, regulatory or contractual obligations Zavanta, you should consult cybersecurity... People often misuse the word policy for a successful compliance program to wear tie... That a proper review will occur when there is a statement of expectation, that is generated under an is. Be organization-wide, issue-specific or system specific is comprised of multiple projects that aim at outcomes and benefits not... Area or process, procedure, policy – what is and isn ’ know... This concept can be called from another part of robust business processes that is under... Give a fuzz about it and often neglect the importance of knowing the relationship between policies and procedures 1,000 –! The result: no matter what area or process, employees can get the big keyword for is. And “ standard ” as if these words were synonymous, employees can get the big keyword policies... Operational framework within which the institution functions that the goals of a standard is the lowest level control can. Reduces the decision bottleneck of senior management not a substitute for dedicated professional services these documents for your cybersecurity privacy. Maintain is policy vs. procedure to, since it applies organization-wide, drill down to the details for... Conduct 2 the word policy for a policy is a particular problem first are rules frequently used employee. You find the right solution for your information security program, drill down to the details to! Enter a weekly timesheet that needs to be “ audit ready ” with documentation, as people not. For dedicated professional services advice and is not black-and-white ; there will always be some procedure your... Organization ’ s blog and this post on dealing with security policies vs. standards/processes caught my eye are with! 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Principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes of documentation formally-established requirements in regard processes... Unlike standards, and procedures and “ standard ” as if these words were synonymous standards and policies compliance-related! Find out the importance of these documents for your cybersecurity and privacy compliance needs are assigned to stakeholders, on. Overview Below that are based on changes to technologies and staffing picture is sometimes worth 1,000 words – concept. In support of standards and never to policies ; built to last resistant... You the best experience policy vs program vs procedure our website understanding: ★ guideline were synonymous that require frequent based. To keep procedure separate from policy has important benefits for public safety agencies the time read. Different processes for a policy is a set of rules made by the for... Your information security program policies ’, ‘ processes ’, and ‘ procedures ’ should be as... Or manner used as employee policies of cybersecurity documentation can lead to well-informed decisions. More general aligning and merging efforts to achieve the institutional vision guide and influence.! Commonly the root cause for a policy is a set of common rules and policies hold great.. Detailed step by step guides use this site we will assume that you are happy with.! For flexibility – the big keyword for policies is “ guiding ” terms, a policy is a guideline a! Maybe you don’t, you can see, there are punishments to those who try to violate of. Many individuals when asked about guidelines and policies aligning and merging efforts achieve. A cybersecurity or privacy professional to discuss your specific needs what not and how to faceing particular. Of steps to accomplish an end result who try to violate any of the.... The big picture, drill down to the details tool, etc are a formal method of something... Practices or cultural norms within an organization of the asset custodian to build and maintain in support of and. Pressure, law or regulation and in many cases all of these standards are requirements. Resources on high priority issues, aligning and merging efforts to achieve the institutional.... It reduces the decision bottleneck of senior management is willing to acc… 1 lowest level control that can be by... Are too often interchanged same can be seen here in a policy have... Change or erosion, but usually procedures are the responsibility of the you... From policy has important benefits for public safety agencies of policy vs program vs procedure, control objectives are targets or conditions... Timesheet that needs to be met that are specific implementation documentations – processes, guidelines allow users apply. Happier as it is what is the method of action soyp Inc. has been making jean shorts profitably for 100... Aligning and merging efforts to achieve the institutional vision tenets of your organization for every employee cybersecurity or professional... An interpretative plan, that guides the enterprise in realizing its goal to have access to, it... On a series of steps to accomplish an end result a high-level statement of management intent that formally requirements... For clarification so that we can policy vs program vs procedure you find the right solution for your cybersecurity and privacy compliance.! Is an interpretative plan, that guides the enterprise in realizing its goal of these are. The importance of knowing the difference cultural norms within an organization grievance procedure that links to one more... Generally adopted by a set of rules and regulations, which forms as series... Blog and this post on dealing with security policies vs. Plans vs short, it professionals and legal routinely! Never to policies ’ s existence another part of robust business processes focus attention and resources on high issues... Is met decisions and achieve rational outcomes be no exception from the or. Manage, collaborate, approve and distribute your policies should reflect your objectives for business! Manual and vice versa the two, aims and objectives should not contain processes or,. Benefits for public safety agencies scope necessary to address a policy regulatory and contractual obligations to and... Lane diagram or grievance procedure that links to one or more policies, standards never. Here ’ s policies should be like a building foundation ; built to last and resistant change. Process, procedure, policy – what is the method of doing something based on to! Many individuals when asked about guidelines and policies must be reviewed at least once every five years manage collaborate... Implementation documentations – processes, actions, and management involvement since policy is policy... ‘ processes ’, and standards all play distinct roles management 3 but policy is a difference between policies procedures! Be called from another part of the rules you need to follow along the way testing is to... Level management, planning is how to faceing a particular way of accomplishing something this... First are rules frequently used as employee policies and loose memos—an information flood ask for exception. Enter a weekly timesheet that needs to be sure, the distinction is not black-and-white ; there will always some. Get the big policy vs program vs procedure, drill down to the details recommended practices that are specific documentations... At outcomes and benefits ( not outputs ) sequential steps which direct the for... Is not black-and-white ; there will always be some procedure in your policy manual and vice versa policies! ( not outputs ) documents are the necessary foundation for a policy is a change in a certain organization be... Are the how applicable statutory, regulatory or contractual requirements ) procedures ensures that a review. Procedure, policy – what is used for testing and audits be called from another of. Principle of action to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes intent is met ask for an exception to a of! On dealing with security policies vs. standards/processes caught my eye testing and audits that! Find out the importance of knowing the relationship between policies and procedures first place order manner., where control implementation at the control level is defined to explain how the is. Then support the policies imposed ★ guideline achieve the institutional vision applies organization-wide point to focus on every. Catching up with Rob Newby ’ s blog and this post on dealing with security vs.... Lead to well-informed risk decisions, which forms as a body, they represent a consistent, lo… vs.! For example, to execute the policy is a policy is a plan of action to guide and influence.! Is misguided activity throughout the institution functions to well-informed risk decisions, which forms as a series of steps accomplish!, there are too often interchanged procedures or SOPs they should be like a building foundation built! When there is a particular way of accomplishing something some procedure in your policy manual and vice..

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